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Sun and Moon Letters

Here are a few resources for teaching the sun and moon letters in Arabic:

Brief Shamsiyyah & Qamariyyah lesson – this is an old, quickie lesson, but I thought I would post it because I think it is still useful.

Sun and Moon Letter Online Flashcards,  I found these at quizlet (I love quizlet). Do a flashcard drill or play a few simple games to practice

Sun and Moon Sorting Activity - super cute from A Muslim Homeschool

Sun and Moon Letter Poster - very nice visual poster to help distinguish between sun and moon letters from A Muslim Homeschool.

Arabic Reading: The Tanween

Introduction to Tanween

Tanween looks like two short vowels written next together. Tanween gives the ending of a word a "n" sound.


Fathah Tanween

Fathatan Drill Flashcards (fathatan with each letter of the alphabet)

Kasrah Tanween

Kasratan Drill Flashcards (kasratan with each letter of the alphabet)

Dammah Tanween

Dammatan Drill Flashcards (dammatan with each letter of the alphabet)


The Long Vowels in Arabic

These resources can provide additional practice for starting to read with long vowels in Arabic.

Long Vowel: Fathah with Alif

Arabic - Long Vowel Fathah/Alif - Drill Cards

Vowel: Kasrah with Yaa


Long Vowel: Dammah with Wow


The Road to Reading Arabic

Compared to English, Arabic is much more phonetic.  In the majority of words, you can sound out the words, there are few exceptions. In that respect, learning to read Arabic is ultimately a matter of learning its phonics, you learn the sounds and put them together to make the words.

On this page you will find:

1) links to books teaching how to read Arabic
2) A sample scope & sequence for teaching Arabic reading and beginning grammar.

Books to teach Arabic reading

Sample Arabic Reading & Beginning Grammar Scope & Sequence

Below is a sample sequence you can follow in teaching your children to read Arabic. This is just one example but most of it follows along with methods from several Arabic learning books that we've used or come across.

For several of the topics, I have resources that I created and I am in the process of adding links to them below.  Some of my resources are lessons and some are just supplemental. I think for continuity, it's ideal to follow from one book like those above, but sometimes there wasn't enough practice for me, so I either created a whole lesson or just supplemental practice/activities. PLEASE NOTE: The links in the scope and sequence below do not follow the outline, they are just links to resources I have made/found on that particular topic that is linked. Sometimes there are lessons, sometimes there are just supplemental practice resources.

I. Arabic Alphabet I – Standalone forms

You can choose to teach the standalone forms first or you can choose all the forms (beginning, middle, end) first. I've always preferred teaching the standalone forms first. Most of the Arabic textbooks that I've come across don't devote a lot of lessons/time to the alphabet so I have always felt the need to make up my own lessons to give lots of practice.
  • Introduction to Arabic Language/alphabet (# of letters, that it is written from right to left; that it is the language of Islam and the Quraan.)
  • Alif, Baa, Taa, Thaa
  • Jeem, Haa, Khaa
  • Review
  • Daal, Dhaal
  • Raa, Zaa
  • Seen, Sheen
  • Review Lesson
  • Saad, Daad 
  • Taw, Thaw
  • Ein, Ghein
  • Review lesson
  • Faa, Qaaf
  • Kaaf, Laam 
  • Meem, Noon 
Order of Teaching the Letters
Some people do not like teach similar letters together as it may confuse children when letters look alike except that the dot (nuqtah) configuration is different. I don't remember having this problem with my kids so I teach similar letters together. Another reason I like to teach the similar letters together is that similar letters have similar forms in the beginning, middle and end. So when they are learning connected forms, it just makes sense to me to teach like letters together.

I also like to teach the letters in order to reinforce alphabetical order (knowing the order sure makes looking up words in an Arabic dictionary easier which I did a lot while learning Arabic).

These are just my preferences.

Another Approach:
A sister once suggested, and I think I've come across in a book or two, is to teach teach the vowels, fathah, kasrah, and dammah early with the alphabet so that as students learn the letters, they can begin sounding out words or parts of words even as they learn the letters. I think this is a good idea if you have a textbook that teaches this way, but most I have come across don't and I tried to do this once with my son, but it was too hard as I had to make up the lessons and it was very time consuming for me.

II. Arabic Alphabet II– Connected Forms 

  • Introduction to Arabic alphabet forms
  • Alif
  • Baa, Taa, Thaa
  • Jeem, Haa, Khaa
  • Daal, Dhaal
  • Raa, Zaa
  • Seen, Sheen
  • Review Lesson
  • Saad, Daad
  • Taw, Thaw
  • Ein, Ghein
  • Review lesson
  • Faa, Qaaf
  • Kaaf, Laam
  • Meem, Noon
  • Review Lesson
  • Haa, Waw, Ya
  • Final Review 


  • 0-10 (you might want to break it down further such as 0-5, 6-10 for younger kids, do two numbers at a time, or even just one number at a time for the lower numbers)
  • 11-20
  • Review
  • 20-99Lesson 5: 100-999
  • Review
  • 1000
  • Review 

IV. Short Vowels

  • Introduction to Short Vowels
  • Fat-hah/Reading with Fat-hah
  • Kas-rah/Reading with kas-rah
  • Review: Fat-hah and Kas-rah 
  • Dam-mah/Reading with Dam-mah 
  • Reading with fat-hah, dam-mah, and kas-rah


  • Meaning of Sukoon/Reading with Sukoon

VI. Long Vowels

  • Introduction to long vowels
  • Long vowel: fat-hah/alif
  • Long vowel: dam-mah/wow
  • Long vowel: kas-rah/yaa
  • Review

VII. Tanween

  • Introduction to Tanween
  • Dammah Tanween
  • Kasrah Tanween
  • Review
  • Fathah Tanween
  • Review

VIII. Shaddah

  • Introduction to shaddah
  • Shaddah with Fathah
  • Shaddah with dammah
  • Shaddah with kasrah
  • Review
  • Shaddah with tanween
  • Review

IX. Sun and Moon Letters

  • Introduction to Sun and Moon Letters
  • Moon Letters
  • Sun Letters
  • Review
  • Definite/Indefinite
  • Review
Beginning Grammar

X. Parts of Speech

  • Introduction to the Parts of Speech
  • The Ism: Types of Isms (beginning level)
  • Gender
  • Definiteness/Indefiniteness
  • Describing Words Must Match Words They Describe 
  • Detached Pronouns
  • Attached Pronouns – attached to nouns to show possession
  • Ism Review
  • The Harf: Introduction
  • The Effect of Harf preceding words
  • The Harf with attached pronouns
  • The Verb: The 3 Verb Tenses
  • The Past tense verb/conjugating
  • The Present tense verb
  • The “Future tense verb”
  • Review Lesson
  • Final Review

XI. Types of Sentences

  • Jumlatul Ismiyyah
  • Jumlatul Fi’liyyah
  • Review

XII.Using Numbers (in context)

  • Number review
  • Using cardinal numbers
  • Ordinal numbers
  • Review

Tips for Teaching Reading: Repeated Reading

(from TJ Companion blog, circa 2007)

We use a technique called repeated reading for English.  You select a small passage (paragraph or sentences) and repeatedly read the selection until you can read it with no mistakes.  With my children, I usually model the reading of the passage to let them hear when I am pausing, emphasizing certain words, etc.

I have found that repeated reading works very well with increasing fluency in Arabic as well (for my children as well as myself).  We have been reading from Suratul Kahf every Jumuah.  We started off with the first five ayaat, then moved up to the next five, etc.  I notice that the ayaat that we have read repeatedly over the year and a half we have been reading it, are more fluent and we make less mistakes. (it also helped with memorization) The newer ayaat are choppy at first but then get better with the repeated readings.

For using repeated reading for Quraan, I find that it is best to pick  ayaat that you have not memorized, otherwise, when you read, you are pretty much going upon what you have memorized.

In English in our homeschool, we do about 3-5 repeated readings at a sitting and I time the kids so they can see how much they improve. You can do this for Arabic as well. In the beginning stages, while kids are learning to read Arabic words, use reading drills (I have some sprinkled throughout the resources above) and time those drills.

The Short Vowels in Arabic: Fathah, Kasrah, and Dammah

Fathah, Kasrah, and Dammah are "short" vowels in Arabic They are not letters, but marks above or below a letter. Here are some resources to teach how to read with these vowels.

Introduction to the Short Vowels

There are three short vowels in Arabic:
  1. Fathah
  2. Kasrah
  3. Dammah

14 page unit


Fathah is one of the three “short vowels” in Arabic.
Learning goals:
  • to identify the vowel fathah
  • to read the sound of fathah on each letter on the alphabet
  • to read words containing fathah
Lesson: Reading with Fathah – 37 pages; sound of fathah, reading letters with fathah, reading words with fathah; mini grammar lesson.

Supplemental Resources


Learning goals:
  • to identify the vowel kasrah
  • to read the sound of kasrah on each letter on the alphabet
  • to read words containing kasrah


Learning goals:
  • to identify the vowel dammah
  • to read the sound of dammah on each letter on the alphabet
  • to read words containing dammah


Make a File Folder Practice Center

To aid review, make a short vowels file folder practice center:
Content Suggestions:

Putting it together:
1. Take two file folders and overlap the right side of one and the left side of the other and attach at the four corners to create a 3 panel center. Attach a folder title on the outside front cover.
2. Place materials for one short vowel on each of the three inside panels.
3. Place materials for short vowel identification on the remaining panel (it is the first exposed panel when you open the front flap.
on the right side is a short vowel identification drill (identify kasrah, dammah, fathah around the game board)
Between the right panel and the middle panel is a pocket made by the folder overlapping. You can store additional items here.

This view shows the fathah drills and cards on the left panel, kasrah cards and word drill in the middle, and dammah cards and word drills on the right panel.

Perfect for reinforcement of new concept or review!
Have the kids color to make it more fun looking (we didn’t obviously on this one) and definitely laminate the pages/cards!

Arabic Fonts

Here are a few of my favorite fonts that I like to use when making Arabic learning materials.

The Abo Slman are wonderful fonts (my absolute favorites) for making Arabic worksheets and learning aids. Among them are a dotted Arabic font and a lined Arabic font which are excellent for educational use.

Cool - Unicode Arabic Fonts - a collection of  Arabic fonts

Here are a few of the "more fun" fonts that I liked from the collection:

B Koodak Outline Font

B Jadid

And here are some others that I found elsewhere online:

Jeddah Font Normal

Jeddah Font (Outline)
Arabic Jeddah Font

Arabic Batouta Font

Here are a few more, the links were no longer working so I removed them, I left the names in case they can be found by googling.

Boutros 5
Arabic Boutros 5 Font

Boutros 6
Arabic Boutros 6 Font
Arabic Cairo Font

original post date: 2/28/2015

Things to Know About Salatul Fajr

Learn About Salaatul Fajr

Salatul Fajr is the morning prayer. It is also known as the Subh prayer.
  • It consists of 2 rakaat
  • It is "jahri, " that is, it is prayed aloud.
  • The sunan prayer for fajr consists of 2 rakaah, prayed before the Fajr prayer
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Anyone who observes the two Salahs performed at cool hours (`Asr and Fajr Prayers) will enter Paradise.” (Source)

When is Salaatul Fajr to Be Prayed?

It begins at the first light of the dawn of the sun, the first glow on the Eastern horizon where the sun will rise from.  This is understood from the Verse, "Until the white thread (of the dawn) becomes distinguishable from the black thread."  It extends until the sun begins to rise, according to the hadeeth, "And the (time of) Subh Prayer is from the first light of dawn until sunrise."  This period of time is usually a little over an hour in most places. (Source)

Excellence of the Fajr Prayer

Tips for Waking Up for the Fajr Prayer

"Indeed, the most difficult of prayers to bear, for the hypocrites, are Ishaa [night] and Fajr prayers. If only they knew what they are missing , they would sooner come, even if crawling on their knees". (Source)
Among the tips listed in the resources above:
  • Go to sleep early
  • Get an alarm clock to wake you up
  • Ask a friend to call you at Fajr time
  • Recite dhikr before going to sleep
  • Fill one's heart with faith and good deeds
  • Keep away from acts of disobedience to Allah
  • Devote oneself with matters pertaining to the worship of Allah

Missing Salatul Fajr

Bukhaaaree and Muslim and An-Nasaaee related on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud (radiallaahu-anhu) that he said:
 The case of a man who slept all the night up to sunrise (without waking up for Fajr) was related to the Prophet whereupon he said: "That was a man in whose ear Shaytaan has urinated", or he said "in both his ears".
 The urinating is literally true, as Imaam Qurtubi says, since Shaytaan urinates and has sexual intercourse and procreates in a manner that Allah alone knows (1). To ascertain for yourself the truth of this assertion, look at the faces of those who come to deal in their daily business without having prayed Fajr in congregation at due time; look at their faces at working hours. You will surely ask Allaah for refuge from a lot as miserable as theirs. But, after all what do you expect from a person in whose heart Shaytaan has urinated!!! (Source)

What the Prophet (sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam) Would Recite in Fajr

He used to make the first rak'ah longer than the second. (Prophet's Prayer Described)

Refer to the Prophet's Prayer Described for a listing of different surahs that he would recite during Salaatul Fajr.

The Sunnah Prayer of Fajr

From Ayesha –Radi Allaahu anha– who said: ‘The Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- was not more concerned and did not pay attention to any of the optional prayers like he did for the two Rakat of Sunnah for the Fajr prayer.’

Discussed at the above link:
1 – Giving Attention to the Two Rakat Sunnah for the Fajr Prayer
2 – Shortening the Sunnah of the Fajr Prayer
3 – What the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- would Recite in the Two Rakah for the Sunnah of the Fajr Prayer
4 – Recommendation to Pray the Two Rakah at Home
5 – Lying down on the Right Hand side after the Two Rakah Sunnah of the Fajr
The Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- used to talk after the two Rakah Sunnah for Fajr
6 – The Dislike of Praying the Optional Prayer once Fajr Time has come in, other than the Two Rakah Sunnah for the Fajr Prayer
7 – The Dislike for the Worshipper to begin Praying Two Rakah Sunnah for the Fajr After the Muadhin began the Iqama for the prayer.
8 – Praying two Rakah Sunnah for the Fajr Prayer after the Obligatory Prayer if You Cannot Pray Before it

Thikr After Salaah

There are many supplications/remembrances that we say after prayer. Here are a few related particularly to the Fajr salaat:
“Whoever says ten times immediately after finishing the Fajr (Dawn) Payer, before moving from his place or talking to anyone,
 “laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa alaa kulli shay’in qadeer – [ none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah alone having no partner, sovereignty is His and all praise is for Him and He brings life and He causes death and He has full power over everything,]”
 ten good deeds will be recorded for him, ten sins will be eliminated from him, he will be upgraded ten degrees (in reward), he will be safeguarded from all kinds of harm all that day, he will be guarded against shaytan and no sin can overtake him on that day (and nullify his good deeds) except associating others in worship with Allaah. (At Tirmidhi no.3484 [5/515]) (Source)
Recite Suratul Ikhlaas, Suratul Falaq, Suratun Naas, 3 times each after Salaatul Fajr  (Hisnul Muslim)
‘O Allaah, I ask You for knowledge which is beneficial and sustenance which is good, and deeds which are acceptable.’ (To be said afer giving salaam for the fajr prayer) (Hisnul Muslim)