Hijri Calendar Basics

The Hijri calendar is the calendar that Muslims use. In this post you'll find some basic facts about the Hijri calendar as well as printables to help you teach your kids/students about it.

Hijri Calendar Fast Facts

The Hijri calendar starts with the year that the Prophet Muhammad (sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam) made hijrah from Makkah to Madinah.

The Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar
Unlike the Gregorian calendar that is used in the West, the Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar, that is, it is based upon the moon and its phases. Islamic months only have 29 or 30 days and the beginning of each month is based upon the sighting of a new crescent moon.

There are 12 Hijri months
There are 12 months in the Hijri calendar. These months do not typically coincide with the Gregorian calendar (i.e. The first day of the first month of the Hijri calendar could be the 21st day of September)

The 12 Islamic months are:
  1. Muharram
  2. Safar
  3. Rabee' Al Awwal
  4. Rabee' Ath Thaani
  5. Jumadaa Al Awwal
  6. Jumadaa Ath Thaani
  7. Rajab
  8. Shabaan (at TJ Ramadan)
  9. Ramadan (for resources visit TJ Ramadan)
  10. Shawwaal (at TJ Ramadan)
  11. Dhul Qa'dah
  12. Dhul Hijjah
Of the 12 Hijri months, there are 4 Sacred Months
  1. Muharram
  2. Rajab
  3. Dhul Qa'dah
  4. Dhul Hijjah
“The year is twelve months of which four are sacred, the three consecutive months of Dhul-Qa’dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumadah and Sha’ban.” [Reported by al-Bukhari, 2958]
There are 7 days of the week on the Hijri Calendar
  1. Yawmul Ahad (Sunday)
  2. Yawmul Ithneyn (Monday)
  3. Yawmul Thulaathaa (Tuesday)
  4. Yawmul Arbiaa (Wednesday)
  5. Yawmul Khamees (Thursday)
  6. Yawmul Jumuah (Friday; "jumuah" comes from word for gathering; Muslims gather for the Jumuah prayer on Friday)
  7. Yawmul Sabt (Saturday)
The word for "week" in Arabic is "usbuu"

There are 4 seasons in Arabic
  • Ar-Rabee (Spring)
  • As- Sayf (Summer)
  • Al-Khareef (Fall/Autumn)
  • Ash-Shitaa (Winter)
(And with all those Allah's Grace and Protections for their taming, We cause) the (Quraish) caravans to set forth safe in winter (to the south), and in summer (to the north without Many fear).(106:2)
The word for season in Arabic is "fasl" (the plural is "fusool")

Important Dates in the Islamic Calendar
  • Muharram 10 - Yawmul Asharah (Day of Ashurah) (commemorates the escape of Musa and Bani Israil from Firaun) it is from the sunnah to fast)
  • White Days - 13th, 14th, and 15th of each month (from the sunnah to fast)
  • Shawwaal 1 - Eidul Fitr (the eid of celebration after the end of Ramadan)
  • Dhul Hijjah 9 - Yawmul Arafah
  • Dhul Hijjah 10 - Eidul Adhaa

General Calendar Resources

Perpetual Hijri Calendars - printable calendar templates to use for any year

    Months of the Year

    Hijri Months Graphic Banners - Individual Islamic month banners. Great for a Hijri Calendar Bulletin board!

     Islamic/Gregorian Month Names in Arabic Chart

    Islamic and Gregorian Month Names in Arabic

    Days of the Week/Special Days



    Practice writing the season names

    How to Teach Kids 12 Months in Islam -  Ayeina.com; helpful post of teaching tips and printables